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Drum It Up! Steel Drum Industry News, Trends, and Issues

Archive for May, 2018

Hot or Cold Rolled? The Differences Between Steel Types

May 31st, 2018 by Natalie Mueller

Filed under: Industry News

It should come as no surprise that we here at Skolnik take great care in the steel we use to make our barrels. In every size we offer, from 15 gallon drums to 110 gallon and everything in between, we carefully consider every decision of the process, and one of the first to make is whether to use hot rolled steel, or cold rolled. Despite sounding like coffee orders, these terms describe how the steel is handled early on, and has a big impact on the final outcome of our barrels.

Regardless of the type of rolling process the steel ultimately goes through, when it’s first created it’s shaped into an ingot, billet, bloom or slab; the different shapes and sizes of the still raw, semi-finished steel. From there, the steel is heated above 1700 degrees Fahrenheit, which breaks down the crystals that make up the metal’s natural state. From there, the malleable molten metal is pushed through a variety of wheels, or rollers, that form the metal into its next shape. This can be the “I” shape of a structural beam, the round shape of a rod, or the flat sheets that we eventually use in our drums.

If this is all the work done on the steel, it’s considered hot-rolled. The steel is left to cool and then shipped off to be used in a wide variety of applications. Because of this shorter production time, hot-rolled steel is cheaper than cold-rolled. The trade-off is that is has an unattractive scale on the outside from being heated and is less accurate in its dimensions due to the shrinking and warping that occurs as it cools. Cold-rolled steel, on the other hand, isn’t finished after its initial shaping, and the additional steps it goes through are what sets it apart from its hot-rolled counterpart.

Once it’s been cooled to room temperature, there are a variety of finishing steps that cold-rolled steel can go through in this cooler state, including additional passes through rollers to further shape it, annealing, tempering and surface grinding and polishing. By going through these extra steps, cold-rolled steel is a cleaner, more attractive, more resilient metal with more accurate dimensions than steel that has merely been hot-rolled.

Here at Skolnik we only use cold-rolled steel in our products. In order to insure the correct dimensions crucial for maintaining the quality and consistency of such products as our 15 gallon drums, cold-rolled steel is the appropriate choice. Not only that, but it’s also better at taking paints and finishes that we apply to our barrels, making sure the surfaces of each drum are up to our demanding standards. Of course, how the steel is rolled is only one of many decisions made on the path to an excellent barrel, but by making the right choices early on, we insure that we make the absolute best product for our customers.

No Torque Wrench, No Compliance!

May 29th, 2018 by Howard Skolnik

Filed under: DOT/UN, Skolnik Newsletter

By now, most shippers of dangerous goods know that following Closure Instructions for UN certified packagings is a must in order to have a compliant package. Having a non-compliant package, one that is not closed in accordance with the Closure Instruction, can put the shipper at risk for sizeable fines from the US-DOT. One of the steps in the Closure Process of a Salvage Drum or any Open Head, Bolt Ring style steel drum, is to:

TIGHTEN THE BOLT — with a calibrated torque wrench while using downward pressure on the cover and hammering the outside of the ring with a non-sparking dead-blow mallet to further seat the ring. Continue tightening and hammering the ring until the torque stabilizes at 55 – 60 ft-lbs and does not decrease when further hammering on the ring circumference is performed. Ring ends must not touch. (Effective 25 September, 2006 and in accordance with CFR 178.2(c), we have revised this procedure to use torque as the most effective closure requirement.

With a specific torque range specified, the shipper must be able to confirm that the closure meets this requirement. Closure without a calibrated torque wrench would result in a non-compliant package (unless the shipper has an alternate means to confirm the torque). When DOT inspectors visit shipper facilities, they will ensure that packaging manufacturers, fillers and shippers comply with Performance Oriented Packaging requirements specific to each packaging manufacturer. To confirm the measured torque, DOT Inspectors will expect shippers to have a recently calibrated Torque Wrench, and calibration certification in use when closing drums prior to shipment.

If a shipper chooses not to use a Torque Wrench, a Level-Lock Closure Ring is an alternative closure option. The Lever-Lock Ring does not require a Torque Wrench for a compliant closure.

Click here to see the written and video instructions of the Skolnik Closure Instructions for the Bolt and Lever-Lock Rings.

What’s that embossment mean??

May 22nd, 2018 by Howard Skolnik

Filed under: DOT/UN, Skolnik Newsletter

When a packaging has passed its performance test criteria, markings indicate the performance rating and test information specific to the certification test. This information must be applied in accordance with CFR 178.3(a)(3). For drums over 100 Litres (26 US Gallons) there are a number of ways that the marking can be applied including stamping, embossing, burning and printing and there must be one complete set of durable marks on the side or non-removable top head, and a second partial mark embossed permanently on the bottom head. The purpose of having the two marks is that once filled, the drum will sit, primarily, on its bottom head, and the UN test information will be readily viewable for the user at the side or top mark. The permanent partial bottom mark must conform to the application options indicated earlier. However, the side or top mark is required to be durable rather than permanent. Therefore, it is common and acceptable for the durable mark to be printed on the drum, or on a self adhesive label which is attached to the side of the drum. The characters on the label and the permanent embossment are subject to the size and sequence requirements as specified in 178.3(4) and 178.503(a)(1) through (a)(6) and (a)(9)(i).

Skolnik.com offers a unique breakdown of the individual marks by drum style. Click any of these links to understand the marking code:

The Various Devices of Secondary Containment

May 17th, 2018 by Natalie Mueller

Filed under: Industry News

A key component of properly storing and transporting hazardous liquids is to have secondary containment plans in case a spill happens. There are plenty of EPA regulations on secondary spill containment, and central to these rules is having the appropriate gear to keep you and your workers safe when the inevitable spill happens.

Here are a few broad categories of tools and containment devices that you can use in your efforts to prevent the problem before it can happen:

 

Containers

The most obvious solution to a potential spill from your primary container is to have a second container to catch what comes out. Depending on your needs, secondary containers can come in all sorts of shapes, sizes and material, usually metal or plastic. We here at Skolnik have a diverse line of secondary spill containers that are made of either stainless or carbon steel, depending on their compatibility with the materials you’re handling. They meet all applicable UN and DOT regulations, and are specifically labeled with multilingual logos for appropriate international transportation of leaking containers.

Elevated Pallets

As the name suggests, these pallets raise your primary container up off the ground with a tray that has grating on top. This creates a stable platform for your container that can catch spills inside the pallet for proper disposal on a later date. These are useful as temporary solutions and for easily recovering and reusing anything spilled.

Berms

A berm, or raised strip of material, creates a barrier on the floor surrounding the primary container, thus keeping anything spilled corralled into a manageable area for clean-up. These perimeter can be permanently incorporated into the construction of a factory, or temporarily deployed at the loading/unloading site when transporting materials.

Dikes

The opposite of a berm, dikes generate a perimeter by creating channels in the floor that will catch the spill. A common usage of these moats is on construction sites, where they are dug straight out of the ground for a fast and temporary solution for containment.

Slopes

Perhaps the least technologically advanced option, a simple sloped floor may turn out to be the most effective method of secondary containment. The main priority of all of these devices is to pull spills out and away from the primary container for easy, safe clean-up; something a sloped floor can achieve with ease. Usually, sloped floors are incorporated into a larger secondary spill containment system to increase the effectiveness of the other spill containment devices. In fact, depending on what else you’re using, it may be required by law to use them.

Drains and Sumps

Another device regularly added into a system to increase its safety and efficacy is either a drain or a sump. A drain is appropriate if it’s safe to dispose of the liquids you’re handling in your local sewage system. If it would be unsafe to drain the liquid, then you ought to explore sumps, which function similarly to a drain, except the liquids collect in a below ground reservoir instead.

 

Which spill containment device or strategy you use greatly depends on the properties of the material being stored/transported. Containing and addressing a dangerous material obviously comes with different considerations and regulations than a non-dangerous good. In addition to these devices, it’s also crucial to have a plan and the proper tools to control a spill after it happens, which means the appropriate absorbent materials, safety gear and training. Goggles, gloves, absorbent cloth, and first aid are just as important as secondary spill containers when it comes to keeping your workers safe.

 

Spills are an inevitable part of handling liquids at the industrial scale, but if you’re prepared for them, you’ll have the best chance at keeping accidents small. If you have any questions about secondary spill containment, the regulations surrounding it, or what system is the most appropriate for you, contact us here at Skolnik and we’d be happy to help!