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Drum It Up! Steel Drum Industry News, Trends, and Issues

Posts Tagged ‘un certified’

The Basics of UN Drums

July 13th, 2018 by Natalie Mueller

Filed under: DOT/UN

Proper packaging is crucial, especially for dangerous goods. Using the wrong container to transport or store your goods can have a disastrous impact on your facility, community, employees and the environment. With countless manufacturers and transportation companies across the globe building and utilizing industrial containers everyday, there needed to be a level of regulation and oversight in the packaging and transportation industry. One of those levels of regulation comes from the United Nations.

For a drum to be UN approved and rated it needs to be built, tested and certified to contain liquid or solid dangerous materials. Only packages that are certified to have passed the UN packaging standard tests may be used to transport dangerous goods.

A few basics on UN drums and the regulations that surround them:

UN drums are tested against drop, stack, leak and pressure standards. UN performance standards are an internationally recognized system of ratings for solids and liquids.

All UN certified drums are marked with a code that indicates the physical nature of the product for which they are suited. This code always starts with the letters “UN” in a circle. This marking is permanent.

There are three dangerous goods packing groups. The first (packing group I) refers to UN Drums and barrels such as those manufactured by Skolnik. This packing group is built to the highest standard.

It is the shipper’s legal duty to select and fill packages correctly. It is also the shipper’s duty to ensure that packages are marked accordingly. Shipping container packers should check that packages are properly marked and, if they are not, should not transport them. But the responsibility of proper selection falls on the shipper.

Do you know what UN rating your materials need? Skolnik can help you understand the UN ratings and guide you to the packaging suited for your use. What’s more, Skolnik UN drums are built stronger and thicker than the industry standards require.

The Five Families of Stainless Steel

June 28th, 2018 by Natalie Mueller

Filed under: Stainless Steel

At Skolnik we offer a host of steel containers — our stainless steel drums offer an ideal solution for products requiring the purity, compatibility and strength of stainless steel. But just like Skolnik offers different families of products, there are different families of stainless steel. Five to be exact: austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, martensitic stainless steel, duplex stainless steel and precipitation hardening stainless steel. The families are classified by their crystalline structure.

 

Austenitic stainless steel is the largest family. About two thirds of all stainless steel produced falls into this category. Their crystalline structure is achieved by alloying with sufficient nickel and/or manganese and nitrogen. These stainless steels maintain their microstructure at all temperatures so they can’t be hardenable by heat treatment, but can be strengthened by cold working to an extent.

Austenitic stainless steel is great for formability and weldability, they are also essentially non magnetic. They’re often used for tanks, containers, storage vessels, architecture and the like.

 

Ferritic stainless steel has a structure more similar to carbon steel, contains between 10.5% and 27% chromium with very little or no nickel. Due to the chromium structure, ferritic stainless steel also holds its structure at all temperatures and is not hardenable by heat treatment. However, they are magnetic and are problematic to weld.

Welding creates microstructural problems so ferritic stainless steel is not used in the construction of large, heavy walled vessels and tanks and structures.

 

Martensitic stainless steels form a family that can be heat treated to provide the adequate level of mechanical properties. Martensitic stainless steels are magnetic and are less corrosion resistant than ferritic and austenitic due to a lower chromium content.

However, their high carbon content enables them to be significantly hardened so they are commonly used for knives, razor blades, cutlery and tools.

Duplex stainless steel’s structure is a combination of that of austenite and ferrite, usually at a 50/50 or 40/60 mix. It’s characterized by high chromium and molybdenum with lower nickel contents. The mixed microstructure results in higher resistance to chloride stress corrosion.

Duplex stainless steel can be difficult to weld properly, but can sometimes be a cost-effective solution for chemical processing, transport and storage, and marine environments.

 

Precipitation hardening stainless steel has corrosion resistance comparable to austenitic varieties but can be hardened to even higher strengths than martensitic steel. Precipitation hardening stainless steel is often used for gears, valves and other engine components, nuclear waste casks, and other pieces in aerospace and other high-tech industries.

 

Beyond that, there are over 150 grades of stainless steel.

Skolnik stainless steel drums are available in a variety of gauges and sizes and are stainless types 304 and 316, both austenitic, and 409, a ferritic stainless steel. And our products are built thicker, heavier and stronger than industry standards require.

 

Overpack Salvage Drums not Recommended for Primary Shipment

June 25th, 2018 by Natalie Mueller

Filed under: Salvage Drum

Salvage drums have long been used as overpacks for the efficient and effective transport of damaged, defective or leaking containers. However, according to the DOT, salvage drums are NOT to be used as a secondary container, or overpack, for a primary shipment.

Rather, an overpack salvage drum should only be used for damaged, defective, leaking or non-compliant packagings that are discovered after having been placed in transportation.

In 1998, the ‘T’ Salvage drum became the United Nations’ recommended salvage packaging for international use. It is most commonly an 85 US gallon capacity. To bear the UN certification, overpack salvage drums are rigorously tested. They must be able to be dropped 1.2 meters (4 feet) on its most critical orientation without leaking and pass a 30 kPa overall Leakproofness Test. However, while they are certified to hold non-compliant packages in transport, the DOT recommends that, once overpacked in a salvage drum, a non-compliant container should be routed to a facility for disposal or re-containment. You can never be too careful.

And remember, traditional overpack drums are designed to protect non-leaking containers or to be used in a combination pack, they are not certified to hold damaged/non-compliant containers.

The History of Hazmat and Dangerous Goods Packaging

May 3rd, 2018 by Natalie Mueller

Filed under: DOT/UN, HazMat

If you work in the packaging and transportation industries, there’s a good chance that you come across dangerous goods regularly. If you do, then you also come across the term ‘hazmat’. Now, it’s not hard to understand that the two are connected, but what are those connections exactly? What does hazmat have to do with dangerous goods packaging, and just who establishes the rules behind it all?

First, a quick definition. In the United States, the official term for dangerous goods is hazardous materials, which leads to the portmanteau hazmat. Pretty logical, but also easy to take for granted if it’s just another term in the day-to-day sea of acronyms and abbreviations.

Dangerous goods, and in turn hazmat, is a broad umbrella term that encompasses materials that are radioactive, flammable, explosive, corrosive, oxidizing, asphyxiating, biohazardous, toxic, pathogenic, or allergenic. Also included are physical conditions such as compressed gases and liquids or hot materials, and all goods containing such materials or chemicals, or that may have other characteristics that render them hazardous in specific circumstances.

Oversimplified: anything that can hurt a human.

 

Hazmat Regulation in The United States

With such an intimidating list of dangers under its purview, you would think that protection from dangerous goods has been a high priority for our government as long as possible. But, the DOT, EPA and OSHA, three of the most crucial agencies for regulating the safe handling of hazardous materials in the U.S. weren’t even formed until the late 1960s and 1970s.

Then, it was only in 2004 that the Department of Transportation created the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), which is the agency directly in charge of developing and enforcing regulations in relation to hazmat transportation. Previously, PHMSA’s hazmat and pipeline safety programs were housed within the Transportation Department’s Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA).

Hazmat Regulation Abroad

Regulators at the global level were a little faster to act. The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)’s publication of the first version of The UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods occurred in 1956. While it isn’t obligatory or legally binding on individual countries, this is the guiding document when it comes the establishing procedures regarding hazmat shipping. For example, all Skolnik barrels that bear a UN certification have been produced to the standards established by the most current version of these recommendations.   

The other crucial contribution to hazmat handling that the UN provides is the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals, developed in 1992. This is the set of rules that standardized the labeling of hazmat across borders, and is why we use the color coded diamond-shaped pictograms to designate which hazards are in what package.

Further Hazmat Regulatory Bodies

Along with these major organizations, there are plenty of smaller, more specific groups that have their eyes set on specific topics, such as the International Air Transport Association, the International Maritime Organization and the Intergovernmental Organisation for International Carriage by Rail. These are just some of the groups who, as each name suggests, focus on their individual priorities and establish rules and regulations that are adopted, inspire and influence how we handle hazmat here in the states and abroad.


Whether you interact with dangerous goods daily or once in a blue moon, it’s important to not only be able to handle the immediate task of safely storing and transporting these goods, but to know where they fit in larger scheme. If you don’t know why you’re labeling a barrel as hazardous, then it’s easy to make a mistake, and there is little room for error when dealing with hazmat storage and transportation. Luckily, there are plenty of resources for any question you may have regarding hazmat and dangerous goods packaging. All of these organizations have multiple resources you can explore, and if it’s barrel-related, chances are we here at Skolnik can help out too.