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Drum It Up! Steel Drum Industry News, Trends, and Issues

Posts Tagged ‘us dot’

The Five Families of Stainless Steel

June 28th, 2018 by Natalie Mueller

Filed under: Stainless Steel

At Skolnik we offer a host of steel containers — our stainless steel drums offer an ideal solution for products requiring the purity, compatibility and strength of stainless steel. But just like Skolnik offers different families of products, there are different families of stainless steel. Five to be exact: austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, martensitic stainless steel, duplex stainless steel and precipitation hardening stainless steel. The families are classified by their crystalline structure.

 

Austenitic stainless steel is the largest family. About two thirds of all stainless steel produced falls into this category. Their crystalline structure is achieved by alloying with sufficient nickel and/or manganese and nitrogen. These stainless steels maintain their microstructure at all temperatures so they can’t be hardenable by heat treatment, but can be strengthened by cold working to an extent.

Austenitic stainless steel is great for formability and weldability, they are also essentially non magnetic. They’re often used for tanks, containers, storage vessels, architecture and the like.

 

Ferritic stainless steel has a structure more similar to carbon steel, contains between 10.5% and 27% chromium with very little or no nickel. Due to the chromium structure, ferritic stainless steel also holds its structure at all temperatures and is not hardenable by heat treatment. However, they are magnetic and are problematic to weld.

Welding creates microstructural problems so ferritic stainless steel is not used in the construction of large, heavy walled vessels and tanks and structures.

 

Martensitic stainless steels form a family that can be heat treated to provide the adequate level of mechanical properties. Martensitic stainless steels are magnetic and are less corrosion resistant than ferritic and austenitic due to a lower chromium content.

However, their high carbon content enables them to be significantly hardened so they are commonly used for knives, razor blades, cutlery and tools.

Duplex stainless steel’s structure is a combination of that of austenite and ferrite, usually at a 50/50 or 40/60 mix. It’s characterized by high chromium and molybdenum with lower nickel contents. The mixed microstructure results in higher resistance to chloride stress corrosion.

Duplex stainless steel can be difficult to weld properly, but can sometimes be a cost-effective solution for chemical processing, transport and storage, and marine environments.

 

Precipitation hardening stainless steel has corrosion resistance comparable to austenitic varieties but can be hardened to even higher strengths than martensitic steel. Precipitation hardening stainless steel is often used for gears, valves and other engine components, nuclear waste casks, and other pieces in aerospace and other high-tech industries.

 

Beyond that, there are over 150 grades of stainless steel.

Skolnik stainless steel drums are available in a variety of gauges and sizes and are stainless types 304 and 316, both austenitic, and 409, a ferritic stainless steel. And our products are built thicker, heavier and stronger than industry standards require.

 

The History of Hazmat and Dangerous Goods Packaging

May 3rd, 2018 by Natalie Mueller

Filed under: DOT/UN, HazMat

If you work in the packaging and transportation industries, there’s a good chance that you come across dangerous goods regularly. If you do, then you also come across the term ‘hazmat’. Now, it’s not hard to understand that the two are connected, but what are those connections exactly? What does hazmat have to do with dangerous goods packaging, and just who establishes the rules behind it all?

First, a quick definition. In the United States, the official term for dangerous goods is hazardous materials, which leads to the portmanteau hazmat. Pretty logical, but also easy to take for granted if it’s just another term in the day-to-day sea of acronyms and abbreviations.

Dangerous goods, and in turn hazmat, is a broad umbrella term that encompasses materials that are radioactive, flammable, explosive, corrosive, oxidizing, asphyxiating, biohazardous, toxic, pathogenic, or allergenic. Also included are physical conditions such as compressed gases and liquids or hot materials, and all goods containing such materials or chemicals, or that may have other characteristics that render them hazardous in specific circumstances.

Oversimplified: anything that can hurt a human.

 

Hazmat Regulation in The United States

With such an intimidating list of dangers under its purview, you would think that protection from dangerous goods has been a high priority for our government as long as possible. But, the DOT, EPA and OSHA, three of the most crucial agencies for regulating the safe handling of hazardous materials in the U.S. weren’t even formed until the late 1960s and 1970s.

Then, it was only in 2004 that the Department of Transportation created the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), which is the agency directly in charge of developing and enforcing regulations in relation to hazmat transportation. Previously, PHMSA’s hazmat and pipeline safety programs were housed within the Transportation Department’s Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA).

Hazmat Regulation Abroad

Regulators at the global level were a little faster to act. The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)’s publication of the first version of The UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods occurred in 1956. While it isn’t obligatory or legally binding on individual countries, this is the guiding document when it comes the establishing procedures regarding hazmat shipping. For example, all Skolnik barrels that bear a UN certification have been produced to the standards established by the most current version of these recommendations.   

The other crucial contribution to hazmat handling that the UN provides is the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals, developed in 1992. This is the set of rules that standardized the labeling of hazmat across borders, and is why we use the color coded diamond-shaped pictograms to designate which hazards are in what package.

Further Hazmat Regulatory Bodies

Along with these major organizations, there are plenty of smaller, more specific groups that have their eyes set on specific topics, such as the International Air Transport Association, the International Maritime Organization and the Intergovernmental Organisation for International Carriage by Rail. These are just some of the groups who, as each name suggests, focus on their individual priorities and establish rules and regulations that are adopted, inspire and influence how we handle hazmat here in the states and abroad.


Whether you interact with dangerous goods daily or once in a blue moon, it’s important to not only be able to handle the immediate task of safely storing and transporting these goods, but to know where they fit in larger scheme. If you don’t know why you’re labeling a barrel as hazardous, then it’s easy to make a mistake, and there is little room for error when dealing with hazmat storage and transportation. Luckily, there are plenty of resources for any question you may have regarding hazmat and dangerous goods packaging. All of these organizations have multiple resources you can explore, and if it’s barrel-related, chances are we here at Skolnik can help out too.

Open Head vs. Tight Head Steel Drums At A Glance

July 20th, 2017 by Natalie Mueller

Filed under: Industry News

There are numerous different configurations of an industrial container. When determining which container is appropriate for a specific use, businesses consider the container’s material, gauge or thickness of the material, size, shape, linings, closures, head style, and many more factors. Some of these factors come with a multitude of options, for head style, it is just a choice between two: open head or tight head.

So what is the difference between an open and tight head drum?

An open head container, also called 1A2 drums, has a fully removable cover secured with a Lever lock or bolt ring closure. Tight head drums, also known as closed head or 1A1 drums, have a non-removable top. One can only access the container via a 2” and ¾” plug in the top of the container.

On a tight head drum, the head is an integral part of the drum construction — both ends are flanged and permanently sealed. Because of the limited access to the contents, tight head drums are often used for liquids, especially lower viscosity liquids. For example, Skolnik’s stainless steel wine drums are tight head containers.

Open head drums, on the other hand, are used for a wide array of contents. Skolnik’s lever lock closure drums are UN rated for solids and liquids, particularly thicker liquids such as soil absorbents, syrups, glues, oils, etc. Open head drums are typically used in situations where people need access to the contents, either for frequent addition or extraction.

Skolnik Industries manufactures both open head and tight head steel drums in over 500 configurations, always to UN and DOT certification standards. If you are unsure what style head or closure your contents require, don’t hesitate to ask a Skolnik representative.

Safe Lithium Battery Containment

June 23rd, 2017 by Natalie Mueller

Filed under: DOT/UN, Industry News

Lithium-ion batteries are the most commonly used batteries in consumer electronics and medical devices today, and they have been exploding. For all of the benefits and conveniences, lithium batteries have offered consumers — higher power density, lower memory effect, long life — they have a number of downsides and risks. Their sensitivity can lead to an explosion and, for this reason, they are considered “dangerous goods” and are banned from commercial aircraft.

The result is a kink in the supply line and, for those who rely on medical devices powered by lithium batteries, more than a mild inconvenience. At present, these batteries are only permitted on cargo aircraft and cargo planes only fly to large airports. As a result, the batteries cannot get to their final destinations.

The world isn’t going to suddenly stop needing lithium ion batteries anytime soon, so this is a puzzle that needs a solution. But, you know what they say: Necessity is the mother of invention. Skolnik Industries and Labelmaster have been working together to devise a package that can safely contain spent lithium ion batteries for bulk transport. This overpack package would serve as a multi-pack solution for the batteries as well as a secondary spill containment measure should the batteries be compromised in transit.

While it is always a pleasure to work with our friends at Labelmaster, we’re eager to find a safe and strong solution to this problem. The project cannot be completed until the DOT releases its final testing requirements for these package types, and, as with all Skolnik Industries products, this lithium battery-safe overpack container would be rigorously tested to meet all pertinent DOT regulations.

Once the regulations are set, we look forward to providing shippers and manufacturers with a safe, efficient solution to lithium battery containment, and helping alleviate the delay for those who need battery replacements for their medical devices.